It is the southernmost island of Ritchie's Archipelago, save for uninhabited Sir Hugh Rose Island, which is another 3.8 km to the southeast of Neil Island. Administratively, the island is in the Neil Kendra panchayat, Port Blair sub-district of the South Andaman district, in the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
There is a lone jetty at Bharathpur, which serves as the only entry-exit point of the island. The population of the island is 2868 as of the census of 2001. Agriculture is the primary occupation of the villagers, and the island supplies vegetables to the rest of Andaman. Despite its minuscule tourist infrastructure, an increasing number of tourists have chosen to stay at Neil Island instead of neighbouring Havelock Island. There are a handful of restaurants and basic beach hotels that cater to international and domestic tourists.